Paternity testing is one of the simplest forms of genetic testing. DNA Samples are taken from a baby, it’s mother, and it’s possible parents. The DNA is extracted, and an enzyme is used to “snip” the samples at a specific point along the DNA sequence.
The mixture of enzyme and DNA is added to a gel, and an electric current is used to sort the DNA fragments based on their size. Larger fragments stay closer to the top of the gel, while the smaller fragments travel to the bottom.
DNA samples from the same person will produce a result that is identical. Samples from two related people will be very similar, and samples from unrelated people will look very different.
This is a cost-effective and fast way to determine the relationship between a parent and a child. Courts may require it in order to determine whom to grant visitation rights to.